Yes, awakening happens.
Yes, awakening includes not identifying with thought, emotion, sensation.
Yes, awakening can involve subtle to powerful shifts in perceptions about the nature of reality and separation.
Yes, awakening is about seeing no self.
No, there is not one static event or state called awakening that everyone arrives at in some magical moment, never suffers again, and then holds hands in bliss, light and love eternally singing Kumbaya. Life is way too fluid to neatly fit into those kinds of static myths. That’s the stuff of spiritual poems that are written during spiritual highs. Notice that you often don’t see spiritual poems about the lows of spiritual awakening. It just doesn’t sell.
I can’t be an authority on all things related to awakening. I can only speak from my experience, so that’s what I will do. My experience includes my own unfolding and the thousands of people I have worked with and stayed in contact with through the years. Many of them are teachers.
Mostly, what gets passed off as awakening is a certain shifting that happens, where one sees that they are not the concepts in their heads. In awareness styled awakenings (there are different awakenings that look and feel differently in different traditions – awareness styled is just one), the shift usually involves some sort of non-conceptual realization of awareness, being, presence or no self that seems to be an end point at first. It can be a sudden or gradual shifting but people generally report this kind of change in perception. Things are seen to come and go within awareness inseparably or things seem to come and go but there is no self to be found (again, different teachings style the words and the realization differently). This head awakening, no matter how it is described, is often taken to be the Holy Grail. Some teachings are more sophisticated in the way they speak of this kind of realization, calling it liberation. Liberation is a strong word. I reserve that only for the kind of realizations that warrant such a tagline. And many of those claiming liberation do so prematurely. Remember the “rush to judgment” in the OJ Simpson case? A rush to awakening is the same kind of dire desire to be done, to firmly place on one’s resume “I have realized X and now there is nothing else to see or do.” It’s like shoving a flag in the ground on the moon’s surface. Out of wishful thinking, we think we can claim this territory. But usually it is the mind trying to claim the territory. Our actual experience reveals otherwise, but we often can’t see it at first.
In chakra terms, the head awakening is the opening of the crown and/or the mind’s eye chakra. Because this opening reveals a profound seeing that separate things, including a separate self, are not really there, it is easy to see why the proclamation of “I’m done” feels so appropriate at that juncture. In many ways, one is done – done with seeking as a self in time and in thought. But this is only a head awakening. Even in a head awakening, it can feel as if the body is open and transparent at first. But given time, areas of the body that are dense with the feeling of separation start to become conscious. This head awakening gets passed off as the Full Monte prematurely. We want so much to be done after years of seeking or suffering. It’s no wonder we want a head awakening to be the whole enchilada. But mostly, it is a half-baked enchilada. I can’t tell you how many people I’ve worked with in sessions and at the Kiloby Center who had an initial awakening which was followed by addictions, obsessions, relationship and money issues, anxiety or depression years later.
The good news is that once the head awakening happens, the rest of the unfolding no longer has to be about seeking a future event (which is often how people approach the head awakening, as something that “will happen to me”). The “me” is made into toast at some point, revealing a lack of an inherent self and its time-bound story. There are plenty of teachings and methods that bring about that “no self” initial awakening. They are helpful and yet they are limited to the extent that they say that one is done when the head awakens.
There are at least two other big areas to be navigated after a head awakening.
- The body.
- The baggage of mental concepts around awakening itself.
Let’s start with the mental concepts. In my experience, there is a desire in many people to grasp mentally what has been realized. There are elaborate conceptual frameworks devised to “make sense” of awakening, just as this writing is a conceptual framework. Nothing wrong with having a conceptual framework, until it becomes the new mental prison. Just as there is a rush to a head awakening, there is often a rush to neatly place the realization into certain conceptual boxes. There are many boxes. All the buzz words you hear in awakening circles can be imprisoning boxes including:
- “we create our own reality”
- “everything is just a concept”
- “nothing is true”
- “life is a divine mystery”
- “oneness is the ultimate truth”
- “no self”
- “I AM”
- “all there is, is THIS”
- “The Tao that can be spoken is not the eternal Tao”
- “The Middle Way”
There is nothing wrong with boxes. They can be quite helpful in communication and quite cozy for the mind. But inevitably, when the box is mistaken for moment-by-moment living of the realization, everything that has been realized is reduced to some ideas and memories. People then speak and act from the memory or the ideas about awakening, rather than seeing awakening as a living, breathing, constantly unfolding moment-by-moment adventure. The archetype for this is the spiritual teacher who sits in front of the room proclaiming full realization while being addicted to sweets or involved with sex scandals or control issues in his/her personal life.
People can spend years after a head awakening endlessly identifying with all sorts of mental stuff around the awakening. This is the time when people desire to be teachers. I went through it. It’s really very innocent and comes from good intentions. But what gets passed off is only what a teacher has realized, nothing more. And many times what gets passed off are ideas about static, fixed things that are taken to be objectively true and real. Spiritual experiences and realizations get concretized into doctrine or dogma or “this is the only way” type thinking.
The good news is that when one is ready, the boxes can be burned up in the fire of freedom, thrown away like yesterday’s garbage. At that point, what becomes important is the living of the realization itself, rather than the conceptualizing and understanding of it. Conceptualizing goes on, like with this writing. But things are held a lot more lightly and non-seriously. The Living Inquiries were born out of my experience of being first immersed in certain boxes and then turning attention towards the moment-by-moment living and seeing.
The body has its own say in the matter. There are other chakras – not just the crown and mind’s eye. The heart can feel heavy, dense and closed for years after a head awakening. So can the root chakra, the sacral, the stomach and the throat. If you think that none of this matters, watch what happens after a head awakening. You’ll see the continued arising of addictions, anxieties, self-limiting thoughts, grasping after understanding, issues with money, depression, big ego trips, issues with control and jealousy – all of it in one degree or another. I found this out by proclaiming that I was done too early. My issue was the continuation of certain addictions long after the head awakening. In my conversations with other teachers, they reported similar things. It takes a while, sometimes years, after a head awakening to fully see the darker, denser aspects of the body that remain closed. This is why becoming a teacher right after a head awakening is not a great idea. It’s like the blind leading the blind.
If you still don’t believe me, listen to Adyashanti. He speaks eloquently about the post-awakening dilemma. Somewhere between 3 to 7 years after an awakening, the other shoe drops. Everything that was held in the mind and body and that was not seen through in that awakening will come up and bite you in the ass. It’s like it all wants to be seen and released. And it can be painful. You can even wonder why you started the awakening process to begin with.
Again, the good news is that the unfolding can continue in the body, if you remain open. Some of the later work I did on the body (and still do) was truly the most liberating of all. When dense areas dissolve or open, it’s life-changing. If you are working with a friend or teacher who stopped at a head awakening, that’s all you will get, unless you break free of that mold and explore the unfolding with an attitude of complete openness.
Don’t worry, the body awakening part is not about seeking in the same way you were seeking in the beginning. Spiritual seeking comes from mind/head chakras that are closed. The body awakening doesn’t happen through seeking. It happens just from remaining open and working with those energies in skillful ways.
To read more about the body opening, check out my blogs here.
By Jeff Keller
The amount of money charged by nonduality teachers can be a delicate issue. There are those who believe that no teacher should ever charge money for communicating this sacred teaching. They will tell you that the truth is “not for sale” or words to that effect.
I can respect this position, although I don’t feel that way myself. I just don’t see a problem with charging reasonable amounts, especially in today’s society, where the teacher is incurring significant expenses relating to the transmission of the information (including maintenance of websites and securing meeting facilities). In addition, the teacher may have little or no other source of income and would be unable to devote considerable time (or full-time) to being a teacher.
I think many who are vehemently opposed to the idea of charging for nonduality meetings are thinking of situations years ago (in places like India) where sages held open meetings without charge and welcomed all truth seekers. However, it is my understanding that sages in these communities had all of their personal needs taken care of by others in the community, i.e. food, clothing, shelter, medical care, transportation, etc.
Such is not the case with most teachers today, especially in Western countries. The members of the community do not offer to provide for the basic needs of the teacher. How can a teacher in Chicago or London pay his or her living expenses (and in some cases support a family) without charging any money or receiving significant contributions? It would only be possible when the teacher has another job that provides adequate income.
I’ll offer some of my observations and judgments about fees charged by nonduality teachers. Naturally, these comments represent my own biases and conditioning. If you are relatively new to nonduality meetings and retreats, these comments may give some helpful guidelines. If you have attended meetings or retreats, I’m sure you have your own preferences and opinions on this subject.
In my view, the overwhelming majority of nonduality teachers charge very reasonable fees for their meetings and retreats. These teachers are not involved in teaching in an attempt to build wealth. They have a love of Truth and feel “called” to spread the teaching.
The amounts charged for meetings will vary with the locale and the cost of living in that locale. Therefore, we would expect meeting charges to be different in an area where the average income is thousands of dollars per month as opposed to areas where the average income is hundreds of dollars per month or less.
In the United States, it has been my experience that most nonduality teachers charge in the range of $10 – $20 for two-hour meetings. Full day meetings (approximately 6 hours) are in the range of $60 – $75. This can be called a registration fee, or in some cases, a suggested contribution. This is an extremely good value, as I see it. In addition, I don’t know of any respected nonduality teacher who would deny admission to a person who was truly unable to afford the registration fee.
With regard to retreats, the range for 5-7 day retreats is typically [in the area of] $300 – $450, which covers only the registration or tuition charge. Here again, I consider that a very reasonable fee for what is being offered.
Retreats can get expensive when you add in the lodging cost and food cost, as well as travel expenses to and from the retreat, if the retreat is not held near your home. Thus you may hear that someone paid thousands of dollars to attend a retreat in Costa Rica or Hawaii, but the lion’s share of the expenses were for travel, lodging and food expenses. The teacher did not pocket thousands of dollars from each student.
Of course, you will find exceptions. There are teachers, or should I call them charlatans, who will ask for thousands of dollars and promise that you will realize your true nature by attending their meetings or studying at their ashram or retreat center.
No legitimate teacher of nonduality will make promises that you will recognize your true nature within a specific time period—and they won’t promise that you will ever self-realize. I would be very wary of any teacher that asks for significant amounts of money upfront or makes any promises about what results will come from his or her teaching.
Some nonduality teachers charge consultation fees for phone discussions or email communications. In the U.S. and Europe, I’ve noticed that teachers charge in the area of $50 – 75 per hour for such communications. There are also many teachers who conduct phone discussions and email exchanges at no charge.
I admit that I’m not a big fan of consultation charges, especially when it comes to email. Many of the best nonduality teachers will answer your email questions at no charge, but they simply don’t have time to answer all email inquiries in detail—and it may take them a long time to respond due to a large volume of email.
“Can you imagine a popular teacher like Adyashanti trying to answer all of his email inquiries? It’s just not reasonable to expect a teacher to do that.” ~JK
If you are in the beginning stages of nondual investigation, email is not usually effective. You will tend to ask questions that can’t be answered in a short email response. And whatever response you receive will trigger more questions. You can’t expect every teacher to spend all day conducting email satsang with you.
Regarding phone discussions, I can understand why some teachers charge a fee. If there is no charge for phone discussions, many people abuse the privilege. They will want the teacher to spend hours answering all of their questions. This can be a tremendous time burden for the teacher. I think most teachers who set fees for phone consultations are not looking to make money from these discussions; rather, they want to discourage those who are not “serious” from calling and wasting the teacher’s time.
It has also been my experience that nonduality teachers are usually willing to speak to you on the phone (or offer email responses) at no charge when you are deeply committed to your nondual investigation and need to clear up a few specific issues.
Almost all nonduality teachers are extremely generous in providing free resources, especially through the internet. Most of the popular teachers have websites, where they provide essays, books excerpts, question and answer exchanges, as well as audio and video materials. Some resources may be offered for sale, but in almost every instance, a generous supply of free materials is offered directly from the website.
There’s also the issue of teachers who set up their blog or website to allow site visitors to make a donation. I see nothing wrong with that and only a few teachers are very aggressive in soliciting donations. The majority have a short statement that donations are appreciated and there is no other mention of money.
Some people like to support a teacher’s efforts, realizing that the teacher is spending time to assist the site visitors and is not charging for his or her services. It’s a nice way for the student to give something back to the teacher. I don’t think many teachers are making a lot of money from these donations.
Finally, I salute all the teachers who are willing to travel to conduct meetings and retreats, even when their appearances will yield little or no money for the teacher. There are many fine nonduality teachers, especially in the early years of their teaching, who get requests to travel to different countries (or different parts of their own country) to conduct meetings.
In some instances, the attendance at these events is very small—perhaps only 15 or 20 people. The teacher is often getting nothing more than payment of his or her travel expenses. In other words, they earn nothing from the meeting and yet it requires several days of their time, when you factor in the travel time. They come because of their love for sharing the teaching.
You may have your own opinion about the fees charged by nonduality teachers. I am just grateful that there are so many outstanding, sincere teachers who willingly share the teaching without being motivated by how much money they can make.
It’s true that a small percentage of nonduality teachers earn quite a bit of money. What’s wrong with that? They deserve it and I see no reason they should have to take a vow of poverty. As long as they are coming from love and sincerity and charging reasonable fees to students, it’s all fine with me.
*Please note, this article is a couple of years old and may or may not reflect current “market pricing” for nondual services in the West.
What are your thoughts on charging VS not charging or any of the above?
by John J. Prendergast, Ph.D.
What is Nondual Awareness?
I have noticed that the term “nonduality” is still fairly unfamiliar to Buddhists even though it refers to the central Mahayana Buddhist teaching that form and emptiness are not different. This lack of familiarity is understandable given that the term “nonduality” derives from the Sanskrit advaita which means “not-two”. Advaita Vedanta largely draws from the wisdom of the Upanishads. It was consolidated by the Indian sage Shankara (788-820 CE) and continues as a vital current within contemporary Hinduism. Interestingly enough, the development of Advaita in the early centuries of the first millennium CE was strongly influenced by the teachings of Mahayana Buddhism.
Buddhist and Hindu scholars have politely quarreled for millennia about how to think about our true nature (anatta v. atma/Brahman, no self v. Self), yet when the sages of both traditions speak openly about their realization, their often poetic accounts are remarkably similar. They describe an awareness that is without subject or object, where the discrete “I” has disappeared along with an apparently objective world of “you” and “it”. Things are not as they conventionally appear. Not by a long shot. The penetrating clarity and power of this revelatory being-understanding is such that these sages compare ordinary dualistic ways of seeing life to a trance or dream state.
The essence of nondual perception is that no-thing looks out and sees that it is everything. Rather than being a discrete, substantial entity, the apparent perceiver realizes that she or he is no thing —not an object that can be defined or confined. One knows oneself as infinite open awareness —empty of any form, yet full of potential. As this open, empty, formless awareness contemplates form it “sees” that form is an expression of itself: emptiness actually is form, form is emptiness. The appearance of duality collapses and life is experienced as it is —undivided, seamless, whole. Integral philosopher Ken Wilber describes it nicely:
“You don’t look at the sky, you are the sky… (A)wareness is no longer split into a seeing subject in here and a seen object out there. There is just pure seeing. Consciousness and its display are not-two…The pure Emptiness of the Witness turns out to be one with every Form that is witnessed, and that is one of the basic meanings of “nonduality.”
This is the point where the Zen master raps his or her staff on the zendo floor with the words, “This is it!”
Even as there is a profound attraction to release into this Great Mystery, there is enormous resistance to it. We humans are very ambivalent creatures! From the point of view of a “me” (whose main job is to resist), this shift of perspective is not good news. It is seen as an end that is distinct from and more terrifying than physical death, especially if one believes in an afterlife. To the controlling ego it looks like personal annihilation (the Latin root “nihil” means “nothing”) —a freefall into a dark abyss. At the very least this opening signifies the dethronement of personal identity and the surrender to a deeper nonconceptual, undogmatic truth.
Even after experiencing a deep letting go, the conditioned self commonly reconstitutes itself in subtler ways, often as a spiritual seeker that keeps the self-improvement project going by trying to attain or maintain certain spiritual experiences or states of consciousness. The mundane ego reincarnates into a “spiritual” ego and one can get stuck in some very interesting places, like being proud of being “no one” or imagining oneself as an “awake” someone. The process can get very tricky and a good guide is invaluable.
This reminds me of a joke from the Hasidic tradition that goes something like this: Once a janitor, who was cleaning the temple after services, overheard two distinguished rabbis having a lively discussion about the immensity of God and their own insignificance. The first rabbi proclaimed, “God is a huge ocean and I am but a small fish.” The second rabbi responded, “God is greater and I am even less than that. He is like the vast, dark universe and I am just a tiny, flickering light.” Unable to contain himself, the janitor burst out of the shadows and added, “And I am only a dust mote floating in God’s endless depths!” Shocked, the first rabbi said to the second, “Look who thinks he’s nobody!”
Psychotherapy: Beyond Self Repair and Improvement
It seems that more people are beginning to have intuitions of the insubstantiality of their conditioned self and of an underlying unity with the whole of life. Some of these people happen to be psychotherapists and clients. So the discussion and direct experience of what we are calling nondual awareness, once largely confined to a small group of academics and renunciates, is finding its way into the life of ordinary people living ordinary, worldly lives. The implications for the field of psychology are important.
Most psychotherapy aims at helping people have a better story and image of themselves and to be more in touch with their emotions and bodies. There is real value in becoming a better, more integrated, authentic person. It enhances our relative happiness and makes the world an easier place to live for everyone.
Yet what if our deepest happiness comes through the disillusionment of the separate sense of self? What if the nagging sense of lack, emptiness, and disconnection that so many of us experience, albeit subtly, is an inevitable existential consequence of misidentifying as a discrete somebody? What if a causeless joy and profound inner freedom are our natural birthright, available to anyone willing and able to undergo the pangs of a “second birth?”
There is an emerging possibility in the dialogue we call psychotherapy to take a step beyond the repair and improvement of the self, as important as this is. Instead of being a step forward, however, it is a step back, a deepening and settling in and down. This movement of attention back to its source in and as unconditioned awareness is accompanied by a flowering of presence, quiet joy, profound peace and deep connection.
While in principle there are no preconditions for the recognition of our deepest nature and it is not uncommon to have a brief glimpse of it, in practice it is very difficult to sustain this awareness when one’s inner sense of self lacks some degree of stability and coherence. Letting go into the “groundless ground” of Being or no-self can be profoundly destabilizing and terrifying, somewhat like being in a major earthquake. People who have experienced early trauma and/or absent and disorganized emotional attachments (bonds) will often need to do careful reparative work to establish a functional resilience before their system can tolerate such a major letting go.
Good psychotherapy and disciplines of attention training can play a vital role in supporting the experience of inner calm and resilience. The potential pitfall of trying to fix or improve the self, however, is that it becomes an endless project in itself. After all, what is there that couldn’t use some improvement within each of us? This could keep us occupied for quite some time. As my teacher Jean Klein would sometimes say, “The car is still stuck in the garage.” It is very easy for attention to be seduced and distracted from facing the underlying falseness of the constructed self, even a relatively authentic and well-adjusted one!
Of course, many people are not ready or even interested in exploring beyond the apparently safe, though sometimes rather miserable, confines of their familiar (and familial) self. This is not a problem. Yet it is important that someone who wants to look really deeply into who they are beyond all stories and images be able to work with a therapist or teacher who knows the territory well enough first-hand. A psychotherapist who is oriented in this way brings the additional capacity to work skillfully with difficult emotional and somatic states.
Scientific Research: A Cautionary Note
If what we are calling nondual awareness is the natural fruition of human consciousness, it would be very interesting to discover if there are certain conditions that optimally support it, along with certain neurophysiological markers that accompany it. For example, the Baumann Institute is funding scientific research and dialogue into these questions, looking beyond popular progressive approaches to ones that directly point to nondual awareness and to a natural, causeless well-being.
It is important that any research of this sort acknowledges the dangers of material reductionism and the possible conflation of correlation with causation. That the brain may change states when nondual awareness is more foreground, does not necessarily mean that the brain is causing awareness. It could as well be a receiving instrument for it. It is tempting to reduce consciousness to an epiphenomenon of the brain, or “the heart” to the anterior cingulate cortex. It is doubtful to me at least that prajna or heart-wisdom originates in the brain. The consistent report of the great sages is that our true nature cannot be objectified, that “Buddha Nature” is autonomous. We would be wise in our research and thinking to be mindful of this, staying open, curious, and proceeding with some humility.
A Final Word
Nondual awareness is always here right now, whether we recognize it or not. The jewel of awareness is already hanging around our neck. It is not something that can be created or even attained. While effort is useful at one stage, in the end it becomes futile. All techniques will inevitably exhaust themselves. After all, how can we attain what we already are? As Rumi wrote:
Knocking on a door, it opens
I have been knocking from the inside!
John J. Prendergast, Ph.D. is the senior editor of two anthologies on the subject of nondual wisdom and psychotherapy — The Sacred Mirror (with Peter Fenner and Sheila Krystal) and Listening from the Heart of Silence (with Ken Bradford) — and has been a student of nondual teachings since reading the works of Ramana Maharshi and Nisargadatta Maharaj about thirty years ago and then studying with the European sage Jean Klein from 1983 until his death in 1998 and with Adyashanti since 2001.
He is an Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology at CIIS and a psychotherapist in private practice in San Rafael. He also leads several private self-inquiry groups. He may be contacted at Listening from Silence or at (415) 453-8832.
*Digital art (“space-like”) by Ernie Resendes.
Post by Jeff Carreira from Evolutionary Philosophy
I am posting this because I wanted to write some thoughts from the conference I am attending. The conference itself is a fascinating mix of spiritual teachers who are offering different forms of nonduality teachings and scientists who are seeing nondual reality reflected in their work.
Yesterday I saw Mokshananda, Pamela Wilson and Adyashanti. All of whom were pointing awareness toward the ground of consciousness that underlies all of our experience. I also saw Peter Baumman who I don’t believe considers himself to be a spiritual teacher but who was also sharing his own understanding of nonduality by explaining the futility of trying to control reality and espousing the virtues of accepting it as it is.
My own presentation was well received. The main point that I was making was that the experience of Evolutionary Nonduality may at first seem like an awakening that we are having as human beings to the process of evolution of which we are a part. But the deeper nondual interpretation of this experience is that it is the energy and intelligence of the universe itself that is awakening to its own existence though human form.
Last night I also saw two other speakers both of whom I found interesting and compelling. One was Peter Russell and the second was Robert Lanza. Peter Russell has been a leading edge thinker for many years and is a fellow of the Institute of Noetic Sciences, of The World Business Academy and of The Findhorn Foundation, and an Honorary Member of The Club of Budapest. Robert Lanza is Chief Scientific Officer at Advanced Cell Technology, and Adjunct Professor at Wake Forest University School of Medicine.
Peter Russell spoke about what he saw as an emerging paradigm shift that he believes is in its beginning stages in science and will unfold over the decades to come. This shift is being catalyzed by an anomaly that is inexplicable to our current scientific paradigm. That anomaly is called “the hard problem of consciousness” and comes from the one thing that we as human beings cannot deny is that we experience reality and yet our current science cannot explain why we have any experience at all. How does inanimate matter lead to some internal subjective experience of reality? We can explain everything about the world except why it appears to us in the first place. If you take an apple and bite into it as an example, there is no reason why the light that bounces off of the apple and reflects into your eye and stimulates your nerves with signals sent to the brain should become the inner experience of what we see as “a red apple.” There is also no reason that the interaction between the material of the apple and your mouth should produce the inner experience that we taste as an apple. Russell believes that the coming paradigm shift is one in which science comes to the realization that experience is not produced as an after effect, but that experience is an inherent part of all of reality. All of realty down to subatomic particles has some form of experience, which means some form of consciousness, inherent in it.
Robert Lanza was speaking in a similar vein about his theory called Biocentrism. Essentially he believes that all the problems that science is currently unable to explain, from the hard problem of consciousness to the inconsistencies of the Big Bang Theory all result from the same fundamentally problem. We have assumed that physics is the most fundamental science and that biology is a later manifestation. This leads to the belief that life and consciousness emerge out of matter. Lanza’s theory explains that if we turn the tables and assume that biology is more primary than physics and that matter emerges from life we will have the theory of everything that has eluded physics. In such a short presentation it is impossible to get any thing but a flavor for someone’s thinking, but I definitely intend to follow-up on Lanza’s ideas.
My overall impression of the conference is very positive and I feel that this effort to bring scientists and nondual teachers together could lead to some interesting results over time.
*Thanks Jeff, for your observations and for allowing us to excerpt your post.
Jeff Carreira is the Director of Education at EnlightenNext, a pioneering organization that is using educational programs, online and print publications as well as other forms of alternative media to catalyze a shift in human consciousness. Jeff’s Evolutionary Philosophy blog is dedicated to the aspect of Carreira’s work that is fueled by his passion for American Philosophy and specifically its importance in the development of evolutionary aspects that can be seen as the predecessors of Integral Spirituality and Evolutionary Enlightenment.